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自考 英美文学复习重点

作者: 阿信 发布时间: 2019年10月12日 16:42:47

  English  American Literature

  Old English 450-1066

  Medieval English 1066 - middle 14th century

  Geoffrey Chaucer - the father of English poetry

  first time to use ‘heroic couplet’?

  The Renaissance - rebirth or revival

  Humanism - the essence of the Renaissance, the dignity of human being  the importance of the present life

  Edmund Spenser - the poets‘ poet

  Christopher Marlowe - University Wits, the pioneer of English drama

  Blank verse, hyperbole夸张

  the human passion for knowledge, power and happiness

  pastoral life

  William Shakespeare - above all writers in the past and in the present time

  Four tragedies - Hamlet, Othello, King Lear  Macbeth

  eternal or immortal beauty

  to praise the friendship between Antonio and Bassanio, to idealize Portia a heroine of great beauty, wit and loyalty, to expose the insatiable greed and brutality  hesitate between fact and fiction, language and action, too sophisticated to degrade his nature to the conventional role of a stage revenger

  To be, or not to be - to live on in this world or to die; to suffer or to take action

  Soliloquy or monologue - fully reveal the inner conflict of the characters

  Francis Bacon - brevity, compactness  powerfulness, his essays is an important landmark in the development of English proseInductive method 归纳法 in place of deductive method 演绎法 uses and benefits of study - studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Studies perfect nature, and are perfected by experience. Different ways adopted by different people to pursue studies - studies and experience are complementary 互补 to each other. The correct attitude to reading books - to weigh and consider. How studies exert influence over human character - reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.

  John Donne

  metaphysical poetry - break away from love poetry, a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes, and a free range of feelings and moodsConceits, syllogism 三段论

  the busy sun is always ready to interfere with other things and everywhere

  whatever you are, you can not escape from death. When you are living, you are always in the shadow of death. Death only lasts a moment, our life after death is eternal. The more pleasure the death gives people, not only the pleasure of the rest  the sleep, because ‘whom the gods love die young’。 Though death is usually considered powerful, it actually provides a rest for a man‘s body and a birth for his soul.

  John Milton

  the only generally acknowledged epic in English literature since Beowulf. The conflict is between human love and spiritual duty. In heaven, Satan led a rebellion against God with his unconquerable will.

  the most perfect example of the verse drama after the Greek style in English.

  Neoclassicism - a revival of interest in the old classical works, order, logic, restrained emotion抑制情感  accuracyEnlightenment - a progressive intellectual movement, reason (rationality), equality  science

  Gothic novel - mystery, horror  castles

  John Bunyan

  from , a religious allegory, pursue the truth

  Alexander Pope

  a poem written in heroic couplets, criticize the present poem lack of true taste  call on people to turn to the old Greek and Roman writers for guidance, ‘true wit’ is best set in a plain (simple  clear) style.

  Daniel Defoe - the first writer study of the lower-class people, praise the human labor and the Puritan fortitude 清教徒坚韧

  Jonathan Swift - a master satiristIn his opinion, human nature is seriously and permanently flawed

  Proper words in proper places

  , four parts - Lilliput, Brobdingnag, Flying Island  Houyhnhnm

  Henry Fielding - Father of English novel, Prose HomerComic epic in prose

  Samuel Johnson - first combine an English dictionary, last neoclassicist enlightener

  Richard Brinsley Sheridan - the only important English dramatist of the 18th century

  and  are regarded as important links between the masterpieces of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw.

  Thomas Gray

  The Graveyard School

  Romantic - emotion over reason, spontaneous emotion, a change from the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of the human spirit, poetry should be free from all rules, imagination, nature, commonplace

  The romantic period began with the publication of Wordsworth and Coleridge‘s

  William Blake -engraver雕刻家

  from  a happy and innocence world from children‘s eye

  from  a world of misery, poverty, disease, war and repression with a melancholy 忧郁的tone from men eyes Childhood, paradoxes, a pairing of opposites