English American Literature
Old English 450-1066
Medieval English 1066 - middle 14th century
Geoffrey Chaucer - the father of English poetry
first time to use ‘heroic couplet’？
The Renaissance - rebirth or revival
Humanism - the essence of the Renaissance， the dignity of human being the importance of the present life
Edmund Spenser - the poets‘ poet
Christopher Marlowe - University Wits， the pioneer of English drama
Blank verse， hyperbole夸张
the human passion for knowledge， power and happiness
William Shakespeare - above all writers in the past and in the present time
Four tragedies - Hamlet， Othello， King Lear Macbeth
eternal or immortal beauty
to praise the friendship between Antonio and Bassanio， to idealize Portia a heroine of great beauty， wit and loyalty， to expose the insatiable greed and brutality hesitate between fact and fiction， language and action， too sophisticated to degrade his nature to the conventional role of a stage revenger
To be， or not to be - to live on in this world or to die； to suffer or to take action
Soliloquy or monologue - fully reveal the inner conflict of the characters
Francis Bacon - brevity， compactness powerfulness， his essays is an important landmark in the development of English proseInductive method 归纳法 in place of deductive method 演绎法 uses and benefits of study - studies serve for delight， for ornament， and for ability. Studies perfect nature， and are perfected by experience. Different ways adopted by different people to pursue studies - studies and experience are complementary 互补 to each other. The correct attitude to reading books - to weigh and consider. How studies exert influence over human character - reading maketh a full man， conference a ready man， and writing an exact man.
metaphysical poetry - break away from love poetry， a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes， and a free range of feelings and moodsConceits， syllogism 三段论
the busy sun is always ready to interfere with other things and everywhere
whatever you are， you can not escape from death. When you are living， you are always in the shadow of death. Death only lasts a moment， our life after death is eternal. The more pleasure the death gives people， not only the pleasure of the rest the sleep， because ‘whom the gods love die young’。 Though death is usually considered powerful， it actually provides a rest for a man‘s body and a birth for his soul.
the only generally acknowledged epic in English literature since Beowulf. The conflict is between human love and spiritual duty. In heaven， Satan led a rebellion against God with his unconquerable will.
the most perfect example of the verse drama after the Greek style in English.
Neoclassicism - a revival of interest in the old classical works， order， logic， restrained emotion抑制情感 accuracyEnlightenment - a progressive intellectual movement， reason （rationality）， equality science
Gothic novel - mystery， horror castles
from ， a religious allegory， pursue the truth
a poem written in heroic couplets， criticize the present poem lack of true taste call on people to turn to the old Greek and Roman writers for guidance， ‘true wit’ is best set in a plain （simple clear） style.
Daniel Defoe - the first writer study of the lower-class people， praise the human labor and the Puritan fortitude 清教徒坚韧
Jonathan Swift - a master satiristIn his opinion， human nature is seriously and permanently flawed
Proper words in proper places
， four parts - Lilliput， Brobdingnag， Flying Island Houyhnhnm
Henry Fielding - Father of English novel， Prose HomerComic epic in prose
Samuel Johnson - first combine an English dictionary， last neoclassicist enlightener
Richard Brinsley Sheridan - the only important English dramatist of the 18th century
and are regarded as important links between the masterpieces of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw.
The Graveyard School
Romantic - emotion over reason， spontaneous emotion， a change from the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of the human spirit， poetry should be free from all rules， imagination， nature， commonplace
The romantic period began with the publication of Wordsworth and Coleridge‘s
William Blake -engraver雕刻家
from a happy and innocence world from children‘s eye
from a world of misery， poverty， disease， war and repression with a melancholy 忧郁的tone from men eyes Childhood， paradoxes， a pairing of opposites